domingo, 29 de diciembre de 2013

Impossible art: Mind-bending, 3-D printed masterpieces

By William Lee Adams, for CNN
December 18, 2013
3-D printers deposit material layer by layer to create a solid object, as in this dramatic headpiece by Joshua Harker. In the past each of the elements would have been crafted separately and then pieced together. 3-D printing simplifies the process and prints the work in one go.

  • 3-D printing is opening new avenues for artists
  • The Van Gogh Museum is printing 3-D replicas of iconic paintings
  • Even Victoria's Secret has embraced the technology

(CNN) -- Thanks to 3-D printers, dentists can today print false teeth and medical device manufacturers can print hip replacements.

Such creations are useful, but not exactly sexy. Thankfully, artists are demonstrating another dimension of the technology, printing remarkable creations that wouldn't have been possible even a decade ago.

Take Tobias Klein. The German artist wanted to meld the architecture of St. Paul's Cathedral with representations of his own body.

Approximating the shape and dimensions of your own heart is a challenge, but Klein did not have to guess. He underwent a series of MRI scans, and then, with a few clicks of the mouse, was able to view his own heart in 3-D.
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He then merged that with a representation of the dome of St. Paul's and sent the design to a 3-D printer, which deposited material layer by layer to create a solid object.

The result was 'Inversive Embodiment,' a twisting, mind-boggling sculpture that links man-made architecture with the architecture of a man.

"It allows me to move into more eccentric areas," Klein says. "We see a super beautiful influx of people working with the medium. We're just seeing how far this can go."

Read: Dawn of a new revolution: How 3-D printing will change the world

New possibilities
According to Wohlers Associates, a manufacturing research firm, the market for 3-D printing topped $2 billion in 2012, up nearly 30% from the year before. And while most of the cash comes from manufacturing companies, artists are throwing ever more dollars at 3-D printers and related technologies.

The desire to innovate is driving the trend, as are falling prices and the increased availability of 3-D printers.

Suzy Antoniw organized "3D: Printing the Future", an exhibition running at London's Science Museum until June 15.

"Although 3-D printing as a technology isn't that new, there has been an explosion of creativity around it in recent years," she says. "It gives artists more design freedom and enables them to create amazing things."

Bernat Cuni, one of the artists featured in the exhibition, takes children's drawings and, using computer aided software, blows the images up like balloons. A 3-D printer then produces these so-called 'crayon creatures,' turning scribbles into mini sculptures.
The Horse Marionette, made by 3D printing. Courtesy Michaella Janse van Vuuren
Michaela Janse van Vuuren, an artist and former puppet maker, focuses on designs that can only be made using 3D printing.

Her white horse marionette includes an elaborate set of wings made of countless interlocking parts, all printed in one go. That means there is no assembly required and the piece is ready for sale immediately.

"There is absolutely no way you can make this design using traditional manufacturing or handcraft methods," she says.

Fashion has benefited as well. It allows me to move into more eccentric areas," Klein says. "We see a super beautiful influx of people working with the medium. We're just seeing how far this can go."
Tobias Klein, artist

For the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show in September, the lingerie giant wanted model Lindsay Ellingson to have spectacular wings that captured the intricacy of snowflakes.

Designer Bradley Rothenberg relied on a 3-D printing process called Selective Laser Sintering that can fabricate complex interlocking support without additional support materials. 3-D printing also ensured a snug fit.

"We actually scanned the model and then wrote code that generated the snowflakes around the 3D mesh of Lindsay's body."

Read: Texas company makes metal gun with 3-D printer

Financial incentive

For artists who live outside of the world's major art markets, 3-D printing helps them access customers further afield.

Janse Van Vuuren
, who is based in South Africa, says it can be costly to reach new markets and to travel to meet potential clients.

"3-D printing removes many of these barriers and has the potential to level the playing field," she says. "My designs can be printed at a location close to the buyer and many online repositories exist where buyers can choose products."

Museums see commercial promise in new printing techniques as well.

Amsterdam's Van Gogh Museum, which holds the world's largest collection of paintings by the Dutch artist, has teamed up with Fujifilm to create 3-D replicas of five Van Goghs, including the iconic "Sunflowers" and "Almond Blossom."

Fujifilm scanned the works and then printed 260 replicas of each—a process that takes three months.
Vincent van Gogh's Almond Blossoms. Courtesy Van Gogh Museum Amsterdam
Known as "Relievos", the copies capture not only the colors—there are 32 shades of yellow in "Sunflowers"—but also the particulars of Van Gogh's brushstrokes, including height and direction.

They also include the frame and the backside of each painting, which have stickers and other markers of where the paintings have traveled.

"This way people can see the history of the painting," says Milou Halbesma, the head of public affairs at the museum. "A painting travels around the world. People can see it was in exhibitions at the Moma and other museums."

The Relievos sell for €25,000 each, about $34,000, and will help the museum pay for essential renovations. Previous sales in Hong Kong and Taiwan were a huge success, so the museum has launched similar sales in Belgium and the Netherlands. It will take its works to Los Angeles in the new year.

Read: Victoria's Secret model wears 3-D printed wings

Baby steps

Critics of 3-D art reproductions like to point how much they vary from the original.

But Joris Dik, a professor of materials science at Holland's Delft University of Technology, believes it is more interesting to compare 3-D reproductions to earlier 2-D reproductions. It shows how far technology has come.

Working with Canon and the Rijksmuseum, Dik and one of his graduate students developed a scanning technique that allows them to capture the ridges and cracks of a painting, and to see beyond the surface layer of paint to understand the structure of the painting.

To the untrained eye their reproduction of Rembrandt's "Jewish Bride" might be mistaken for the original.

But for Dik that's not the point. What's important is that his 3-D representation is an incremental step forward. In the future 3-D scanning techniques and printing may even replicate layers and luminescence, the quality whereby particles in paint make it appear to shine.

"The one thing that is certain is that 3-D printing is advancing rapidly," Dick says. "I'm quite sure that in a couple of years we'll be a couple of steps further."

Gorgeous Computer-Generated Flowers Bloom: Photos

British philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell once said, "Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty." One look at these computer-generated images from Daniel Brown and Russell's words come to life.

Brown, a London-based designer, programmer and artist who specializes in digital technology and interactive design uses custom algorithms to "grow" gorgeous floral artwork that will blow your mind. Here are 11 of our favorites.
Courtesy Daniel Brown

It all started in 1999, when Brown demonstrated a computer program and mathematical model that used special code to produce fractals. The resulting animations were almost hypnotic. "It was the first time I realized that non-technical people could aesthetically appreciate mathematical formulas if they saw them 'come alive,'" he said.
Courtesy Daniel Brown

Brown created the pieces in this slideshow for the Victoria and Albert Museum and the D'Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum, as well as projects for corporate clients. A swimming accident in 2003 broke Brown's spinal cord, causing paralysis. As a result, he uses a finger-splint device and a large track pad to operate a computer. Even without this added challenge, his flowers are uniquely beautiful; no two look exactly the same.
Courtesy Daniel Brown

Several years ago Brown produced a three-story-high projection of flowers for the Victoria and Albert Museum. Each petal generated contained combinations of images from the museum's textile collection. The work was named in honor of D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, a pioneering bio-mathematician known for his 1917 book On Growth and Form.
Courtesy Daniel Brown

Last year, the D'Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum at the University of Dundee in Scotland contacted Brown after seeing his Victoria and Albert Museum work and asked him to create a piece for them. Brown said he used generative design to create the realistic flowers for this newer exhibition, which went up last spring. Each flower shape is determined by an algorithm that is then altered to take into account natural variation.
Courtesy Daniel Brown

Another mathematical formula is used to generate the color and texture applied to the shapes. Each arrangement is grown over about 50 seconds, resembling time-lapse photography that's been sped up. "After this, they fade out and another arrangement is created," he said.
Courtesy Daniel Brown

Brown's original pieces only used two-dimensional computer graphics that mimicked a 3-D look. However, in the past few years, computer technology has evolved so that he can simulate surfaces, behaviors and lighting in real time.

Sometimes Brown produces a flower that even amazes him. "I can't work out the particular parameters that would have gone into it, and am left scratching my head," he said. "Because the flowers regenerate every minute or so, it's a fleeting moment, and there is something almost poetic knowing that no one will ever see that one flower again."
Courtesy Daniel Brown

D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson was a Scottish scientist and scholar who took various natural processes such as evolution and tried to question them mathematically. He sought to discover out how differences in shape and form between two genetically related species could be mathematically modeled, Brown explained.

He also wondered about physical processes like weather, and how they could change one shape into another. Getting contacted by the D'Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum was the ultimate honor, Brown said. "I couldn't think of a more fitting thing to do for one of my scientific heroes."
Courtesy Daniel Brown

Brown's flowers are so realistic that occasionally museum visitors won't realize they're computer graphics and will insist on asking him what kind of flowers they are. Other reactions are more visceral.

"When my work was on show in the Victoria and Albert Museum, young children -- toddlers rather -- would run up to the wall it was being projected on and try and hug it," he said. "At that moment people stop seeing technology, and just see beauty."
Courtesy Daniel Brown

While he's staying quiet about plans for future art projects, Brown said he looks forward to a future when 3-D printing is refined enough to print realistic versions of his computer flowers.

Courtesy Daniel Brown

He imagines he'll be able to make ever more intricate and extraordinary flowers. "Although I was both an artist and programmer before my injury, I have switched to creating art purely with code," Brown said. "In that way I consider myself incredibly lucky. I think I had one of the only jobs in the world that could 'survive' such a life changing event as that."

To see more images, visit Daniel Brown's Flickr page.
Courtesy Daniel Brown

ORIGINAL: Discovery
by Alyssa Danigelis
Nov 21, 2013